Classroom technology

For online teaching I use:

  • Mural – visual collaborative software that is easy to use and allows students to directly contribute to a discussion

Here’s a list of some websites/apps that I recommend for tests/quizzes/forms:

  • Google Forms – easy to build and monitor, can be used as a graded quiz
  • – very useful for quick feedback, generated wordclouds, and doesn’t require students to log in
  • Kahoot! – a fun quiz template
  • Socrative – a nice way to present quizzes and measure student performance. Can be teacher paced so that you ensure all students have answered before moving on to the next question
  • Typeform – a way to generate longer forms that are tailored to student responses

Qualtrics and Survey Monkey are great for running a survey, and purport to allow you to create a quiz, but in my experience lack the functionality required to be used in a classroom setting. I am very keen to find an intuitive quiz builder that allows students to see their score, and allows instructors to batch grade open ended questions and then export the results. So far it seems that Google Forms are the best option.

Here’s a list of some resources that have been recommended to me, but I don’t currently use:

  • Nearpod– allows interaction and student participation
  • Mentimeter— presentation software to encourage fun workshops

Business Ethics

This is a 2 day course that surveys a number of frameworks and models that can be used to cope with moral and ethical dilemmas. Famous cases will be used to provide a realistic grounding to the content and participants will be tasked to apply those concepts and discuss their insights. A particular emphasis is placed on the concept of justice, and how managers can apply these insights within an organisational setting.

The course is heavily group-focused and includes case discussion and role playing activities.


  • Who’s Responsible for the Drawbridge Drama?” by Mueller, U., and Schaefer, U., European School of Management & Technology, 2010
    • Learning objective: The case introduces students to topics such as “responsible leadership” and “responsible business”. It also provides an engaging illustration of how people look at the same context or phenomenon, but reach very different interpretations and judgments.
  • Rajat Gupta“, by Healy, P.M., and Soltes, E., Harvard Business School, 2019
    • Learning objective: The case explores how a prominent and successful executive can engage in misconduct. In addition, the case explores the nature of illicit insider trading.
  • Through the Eyes of a Whistle-Blower: How Sherry Hunt Spoke Up About Citibank’s Mortgage Fraud“, by Waytz, A., and Kilibarda, V., Kellogg School of Management, 2014
    • Learning objective: The case helps students to gain experience resolving ethical dilemmas in which two values may conflict, such as professional duty and personal ethics. It enables students to identify behaviors that help a whistle-blower be effective and discuss how incentive structures, management, and culture play roles in promoting or hindering ethical behavior in organizations.

Primary readings

Secondary readings


  • Crane, A., Matten, D., Glozer, S., and Spence, L., 2019, Business Ethics (Oxford University Press, 5th Edition)

Further resources

An Inspector Calls is the classic literary depiction of how responsibility can be shared among many people. Although I find the social commentary to be frustratingly simplistic, there is a 2015 BBC Drama version that you may find worth watching. The 2017 Netflix Series, ‘13 Reasons Why‘ explores similar themes, but I haven’t watched it.

The 1957 movie, ‘12 Angry Men‘ is a classic. It shows how a natural drive to reach consensus can mask important insights, and that the role of Devil’s Advocate can be important in team settings.

Here is an article on why Peep Show is “the most realistic depiction of evil“.

Here is a BBC article on the Chick-fil-a controversy.

Here is the DuPont Conaco Double-Hulled Oil Tankers Seal Clapping Commercial (1991), and here is the Wikipedia article about Harambe.

The first episode of the highly rated French TV show “Bureau des Legèndes” provides a good example of an ethical clash between personal values (based on religious belief) and professional obligations.

Eyal Press’s 2012 book ‘Beautiful Souls: Saying No, Breaking Ranks, and Heeding the Voice of Conscience in Dark Times‘ is a rich and engaging collection of stories about people refusing to adhere to authority. It shows how whistleblowers are not typically anarchists who enjoy flouting rules, but people who value those rules so highly they insist on holding their superiors to them. It includes the story of a Serbian man who, in 1991, risked his own life to protect captured Croatians from execution, as well a Swiss police official who broke the law by giving entry permits to Jewish refugees in 1938.

Regarding the importance of involving the local community in a company’s strategy, see Steve Jobs; testimonies to Cupertino city council, in 2006:

…and again in June 2011

The most famous whistleblowing case of recent times is Edward Snowden. Citizenfour is a critically acclaimed documentary:

“Official Secrets” is based on a true story, featuring whistleblower Katharine Gun. I found it interesting that she made no attempt to escalate issues internally before going outside the organisation. The fact that she worked for the UK security services added more weight to the magnitude of her actions, but also calls into question whether we should treat people with security clearance differently to dissent in other contexts.

For a contrarian view on sweatshops, see here:

My favourite documentary on Lance Armstrong is ‘The Armstrong Lie‘ (2013)

There is also a 2 part “Storyville” documentary called “Lance” available on BBC iPlayer here.

A charming example of passing on a favour is the music video to Clay Walker’s ‘Chain of Love‘:

Here’s Hans Rosling explaining why most of the world is better off than you think:

You can watch the PBS version of ‘Command and Control’ here.

Further courses


Finally, you can test your understanding of the content, and provide me with useful feedback, by completing this quiz:

Behavioural Economics

This short course will survey the key findings of behavioural economics and explain how they relate to day-to-day management. Participants will receive a thorough understanding of how economic insights for decision making can be augmented with experimental economics.

The course will be interactive with numerous examples and opportunities to apply the concepts discussed.

After this lecture you should be able to: Apply a range of examples of behavioural anomalies to real business situations. Understand behavioural anomalies in light of an ecologically rational framework.

Pre reading: “Sun: A CEO’s Last Stand”, Business Week, July 26th 2004 (£)


Recommended books:

  • Poundstone, William (2010) Priceless: The Hidden Psychology Of Value Oneworld
  • Kahneman, Daniel (2011) Thinking, Fast and Slow Farrar Straus and Giroux

Recommended articles:

  • Lambert, Craig “The Marketplace of Perceptions”, Harvard Magazine, March-April 2006 – A summary of chief insights from behavioural economics and neuroeconomics
  • Poundstone, W., (2011) “Prospect Theory” (Chapter 16) and “Ultimatum Game” (chapter 18) from Priceless: The Hidden Psychology of Value, One World – Good introductions to key concepts
  • Tabarrok, A., “A Phool and His Money” Review of PHISHING FOR PHOOLS: The Economics of Manipulation and Deception, by George A. Akerlof and Robert Shiller, Princeton University Press – A defence of standard economic theory against behavioural claims
  • Manne, H.G., (2005) “Insider trading: Hayek, virtual markets, and the dog that did not bark”, Journal of Corporation Law 31(1):167-185 – A defense of insider trading from the perspective of internal markets and corporate information flows
  • Smith, V. L. (2002) “Constructivist and Ecological Rationality in Economics” Nobel Prize Lecture – An explanation of the difference between constructivist and ecological rationality


Doing Business in Eastern Europe

Course outline: Doing Business in Eastern Europe 2019

Part 1: Pre class activities

Participants should read all of the following and submit a One Pager on one of them:

Part 2: Lecture and quiz

The lecture slides will be made available here.

powered by Typeform

Part 3: Class Assignment

Participants should select one of the countries under study and identify a potentially internationally competitive cluster. Using the format provided in the lecture, and the East Belarus mechanical engineering article as a guide, participants will submit a written report. The report should contain diamond analysis and cluster mapping.

The following clusters are not permitted:

  • Ship & Boatbuilding in Croatia
  • Romania Apparel Cluster

Useful resources:

Making videos

If an economics instructor requires students to submit work using PowerPoint, they can reasonably expect that those students will either possess the skillset required to do so, or recognise the need to develop it. And student’s wouldn’t feel that the choice of format is a source of disadvantage. In a few years time the same will apply to the creation of a video. I see 4 options to create simple content.

  1. Video – the most obvious route is to use the video feature on a standard smartphone. Here’s an example. This can be done in a single shot without any additional resources. Here are some tips. This is the simplest way to record yourself, but I find it a little awkward when done as a lecture. If it’s more informal it’s more engaging, but slightly more complicated to plan. Using a light board is possibly the best way to do this. Social media platforms now have great video functionality. I like TikTok (here’s an example).
  2. Powerpoint with voiceover – this is probably the simplest, and I have several examples. There’s also products such as Adobe Spark that perform the same function but slightly slicker. Do be careful about whether to put the slides online as well, since this can reduce the likelihood of students watching the video. I use Camtasia to narrate over a PowerPoint screen record. Here’s an example. It also allows relatively easy editing but it’s not cheap and I’m sure there’s plenty of other options. Here’s some instructions for screen recording on a Mac. Quicktime has a very simple audio + screen capture device and it’s baked into Mac OS. See Tom’s Guide for some more.
  3. Dual video and slides – this is a great way to convey detailed content but in a personalised way (e.g. Andy Field). I’m keen to find simple software that allows a presentation recording, webcam footage, and note space. In other words I want to know what these guys use. I’ve been told that the following do it, but I’m yet to convince myself that they’re simple enough for me to use.
    • Loom – best for people who want a free solution that is intuitive and easy to use
    • ManyCam – best for people with a license, and willing to learn how to use it
    • OBS Studio – best for people who want a free, open source option that is slightly more complicated to use but allows a lot more functionality (here’s a tutorial)
    • Zoom – best for people that are used to using Zoom
  4. Interactive powerpoint – for my EMIB course we had an interactive green screen. This puts the presenter inside the screen and permits interaction (e.g. drawing directly on the screen). It’s basically reading the weather. It’s harder to plan but the final result can be quite effective. For lecturing, I don’t a green screen adds much value over a plain background. A virtual set though, may be worth investing in!

Finally, it’s not always necessary to reinvent the wheel. I think there’s value added in giving students content that you’ve created, since it generates a student-teacher bond. But I also utilise high quality videos created by others.

Excellent sources for economics related videos are TED Talks, the St Louis Fed, Planet Money Shorts, and Learn Liberty.

Problem Solving and Decision Making

A 2-3 day course that leads participants through the 7 key stages of finding a solution using practical examples and plenty of team work.

Problem Solving and Decision Making is an intensive managerial programme that has proven successful in improving efficiency, performance and productivity. The course aims to provide practical skills and a management mindset rather than simply transfer knowledge. Participants are taken through the full problem-solving and decision-making cycle: from breaking down the issue, to prioritising and writing the action plan. They also practice communicating their proposal, an important and often overlooked aspect of the decision-making process. The course focuses mostly on experiential, proactive and practical learning: participants engage in individual and team problem-solving and decision-making, and receive constructive feedback to build on personal strengths and address limitations.



For more on the Pyramid Principle:

For more content:

Country Competitiveness Dashboard

I am an Affiliate Faculty Member of the Microeconomics of Competitiveness program at Harvard Business School, and a big fan of Michael Porter – his work consistently reminds me of the importance of bringing clarity to management practice.

I also like his inclination for frameworks rather than models. If your goal is to interpret and assess, as opposed to measure and predict, a framework is a critical analytical tool. One that I especially like is his explanation for what determines competitiveness. For example, consider the following slide (which I believe originates from here).


I’ve given this framework a lot of thought, but I don’t think it fits as neatly into the Diamond model as is often claimed. For example in this NBER paper Porter (and co-authors) present an enlarged version:


This clearly shows that the Diamond model is intended to be a more detailed view of the “Quality of the National Business Environment” segment. But consider something like nutrient rich soil, or a large natural harbour. One might think that constitutes an endowment. But it is also a relevant “Factor input condition”. Indeed what’s the difference between the “Supporting and Related industries” and “State of Cluster Development”? I suspect this is why Figure 3 above has dropped endowments and clusters, and renamed it a “Foundational Competitiveness Index”. I think this is a shame, because the “What Determines Competitiveness” slide is clearer, and more coherent, than the FCI.

I think Porter’s attempt to force fit the Diamond model into the Competitiveness index creates an opportunity to take the “What Determines Competitiveness” slide in a new direction. Indeed I think it complements nicely the “Growth is Like an iPhone” analogy:

In my attempts to merge the three level analogy with a template that my students can use in class, and with all appropriate nods to Prof. Porter, this is the “Country Competitiveness Dashboard“:


Rather than viewing the Diamond model as a subset of the “Business environment”, I see it more as a strategic tool that cuts across the whole Country Competitiveness Dashboard. In other words step 1 is to populate the dashboard, and ensure that you are covering all bases. Step 2 is to conduct a Diamond analysis – which is better suited at the cluster level than the national level anyway.

The endowments above are rooted in economic growth theory, but I am always struck at how important they seem to be when reading geopolitical accounts. The list below shows some of the typical go to areas when trying to understand the starting position of a country.

Finally, it is well worth reading Paul Krugman’s, Competitiveness – a dangerous obsession (Foreign Affairs, March/April 1994). When treated as a mercantilist trade “strategy”, or the conflation of corporate planning with national level decision making, attention to competitiveness can lead us down the wrong path. But when competitiveness is wedded to our understanding of economic growth, and the conditions required for entrepreneurship to flourish, the competitiveness framework is immensely beneficial.

Economic Freedom 101


Lecture handouts for the Jan 2020 version are available here.


This short course provides provides a survey of global poverty and a discussion of the causes of prosperity. Particular emphasis is placed on the institutions required for market exchange, and the importance of economic calculation. As a satellite photo of the Korean peninsula makes clear, socialist planning is literally groping in the dark. We will look at the theoretical reasons behind this claim, and the empirical validation that economic freedom matters.


The course does not rely on any previous study of economics.

Teaching methods

  • Lectures (3 sessions)


The course is designed to tie into Chapters 4 and 12 of the following (amazing) textbook:

The website for the book contains an array of other resources:

An additional reading list is available here:

An edited list of highly recommended articles from The Economist is here:


9am Session 1

Economics matters: The link between economic institutions and global prosperity

In this lecture I will ask some broad and fundamental questions about the application of economic theory to the real world, and the role of the economist as a force for making the world a better place. I will try to convince you that we have a fairly good understanding of what causes economic growth, and how important this is for raising living standards and improving people’s quality of life. In other words, economics matters.

10:45am Break

11:00am Session 2

Groping in the dark: Why socialist calculation is impossible

12:30pm Lunch

2:00pm Session 3

Economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe: Shock therapy or gradualism?

3:30pm Finish

If you’ve taken the course, you can check your learning with this quiz:

Can also include the Bag Game and the International Trade Game

Online learning

Also see: Classroom Tech and Making videos

The covid-19 pandemic has prompted a mass transition from in class tuition to virtual learning. It’s an incredible pedagogical experiment, and I’m intrigued as to how it will play out. ESCP Business School was an early mover – our Turin campus made a complete switch online on February 23rd. I’m the Teaching & Learning coordinator for our London campus, and we have been anticipating and managing as smooth a transition as possible since then. We went fully online on March 16th [the day after I wrote the first draft of this article].

This crisis situation has prompted an immediate action, but it reflects a deeper trend away from the classroom. I feel well placed to react because I’ve made online learning a key part of my professional strategy. In 2016 I launched an online Managerial Economics course as part of ESCP’s “Executive Master in International Business” (EMIB). Since then I’d added a new online course every year, such that in 2019/20 my online teaching exceeded my in class instruction. I am a digitally minded person, and have loved the opportunity to develop such courses to be able to recognise more clearly the value of being physically present. For me at least, those two forms of teaching are complementary and teasing out how they interact has been satisfying.

This article isn’t intended to be updated in real time, and maybe it will become quickly outdated. But to start off with here are some key resources I’ve used recently:

It’s not obvious that teachers have the right skillset to create online courses.

The key skillset for a lecturer:

  • Knowledge of the content
  • Personable delivery
  • Ability to grade exams

The key skillset for an online instructor:

  • Ability to curate content
  • Aptitude with alternative technologies
  • Choice of assessment

So instructors should think carefully before attempting to move online. It takes preparation and experience, and may be detrimental to in class instruction.

I see four basic models for online learning:

Model 1: Your own pace

These type of courses remove students from the dreaded (and stupid) syllabus and allows us to package a course into a simple process:

  • Read this
  • Watch this
  • Listen to this
  • Do this

The platforms that I use and recommend are Coursera and Udemy. I’ve built a course on Teachable, but it’s expensive. I’ve also trialled Canvas, which looks good. Another option is Versal. (In the stampede prompted by the coronavirus I simply used the existing learning management system (our school uses Blackboard) because it integrates with grading and students already have password protected access. But if I were reaching out to non enrolled students I’d use something else.)

For economics instruction, I like the Foundation for Economic Education, but by far the best options are run by Marginal Revolution University. In particular these courses:

You could also do a lot worse than simply watching Jacob Clifford’s YouTube channel.

For some non economics courses, consider:

Finally, my own course on Analytics (including Numeracy Skills Bootcamp; An Introduction to Game Theory; and Collecting and Presenting Data) follows a student led model. As does my Blended GMP courses on Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. A key thing to ensure is a structure, such that students pass through the modules on an appropriate timescale and remain motivated.

Model 2: Virtual classroom

When built well, student led classes can be very effective. But they can be a challenge to ensure consistent student engagement. It’s no surprise therefore that for many traditional courses that are having to transfer online, the prevailing course structure is important. The need to retain a timetable, and get students to interact, more closely replicates their previous experience. Don’t forget, one reason people pay for gym membership is the discipline of going to the gym. If students wanted a DIY alternative they’d already have chosen that, and would have saved a large amount of money in doing so. So how do you keep the class together?

Model 3: Remote classroom

Remote classrooms use the technology of the internet to distribute content but don’t fundamentally differ from a distance degree. The key value being provided by the university is therefore the grading of assignments and student feedback. They are paying not for the content per se, but to have a professional instructor grade it for them. Automated quizzes don’t cut it in this context. Examples:

Model 4: The voyeur

This is when a physical course is delivered as normal but participants receive remote access. This has a bigger emphasis on hardware needs (e.g. high quality cameras and mics throughout the audience) and editing. But it’s an easy way to grant access to those unable to attend physically. Some examples:

I think for all serious online courses (i.e. ones where students pay big money to a reputable institution), the key factors for success:

  • Strict schedule
  • Tough assessments

I see a major advantage for online courses being the opportunity to crowdsource and aggregate grading into quick, responsive, 360 feedback. I like to ensure that students are viewing, and critically engaging in each others submissions.

Finally, I have taken, and recommend, the following online courses:

and I’ve enrolled on/intend to audit:

It’s never been easier to learn online, and thanks to coronavirus it’s never been easier to teach online. Experiment and have fun!